Tchemtchoua VT, Atanasova G, Aqil A, Filée P, Garbacki N, Vanhooteghem O, Deroanne C, Noël A, Jérome C, Nusgens B, Poumay Y, Colige A.
Source - Laboratory of Connective Tissues Biology, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.
The final goal of the present study was the development of a 3-D chitosan dressing that would shorten the healing time of skin wounds by stimulating migration, invasion, and proliferation of the relevant cutaneous resident cells. Three-dimensional chitosan nanofibrillar scaffolds produced by electrospinning were compared with evaporated films and freeze-dried sponges for their biological properties. The nanofibrillar structure strongly improved cell adhesion and proliferation in vitro. When implanted in mice, the nanofibrillar scaffold was colonized by mesenchymal cells and blood vessels. Accumulation of collagen fibrils was also observed. In contrast, sponges induced a foreign body granuloma. When used as a dressing covering full-thickness skin wounds in mice, chitosan nanofibrils induced a faster regeneration of both the epidermis and dermis compartments. Altogether our data illustrate the critical importance of the nanofibrillar structure of chitosan devices for their full biocompatibility and demonstrate the significant beneficial effect of chitosan as a wound-healing biomaterial.
PMID: 21761871 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Holzerny P, Ajdini B, Heusermann W, Bruno K, Schuleit M, Meinel L, Keller M
Source - Novartis Pharma AG, Technical Research & Development (TRD), CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland
Chitosans are naturally occurring polymers widely used in life science to mediate intracellular uptake of nucleic acids such as siRNA. Four chitosans of fungal origin (Agaricus bisporus; molecular weights MW=44, 63, 93 and 143 kDa) were used in this study and profiled for size, viscosity and hydrodynamic radius using gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Polyplexes made of these chitosans and siRNA were developed and optimized for transfection efficacy in vitro. The characteristics of these polyplexes were low chitosan:siRNA ratios (4-8; N:P) similar positive zeta potential (20-30 mV) and comparable particle sizes (about 150 nm). Endogenous luciferase reporter gene down-regulation in human epithelial H1299 cells at nanomolar concentrations (37.5-150 nM) was significantly stronger for the lower molecular weight chitosans. The impact of these low N:P polyplexes on the cellular viability was minimal also at 150 nM. To help develop an understanding of these differences, an energetic profile of the molecular interactions and polyplex formation was established by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The four polyplexes exhibited strong binding enthalpies delta H(bind)(-84 to -102 kcal/mol) resulting in nanomolar dissociation constants. Intracellular trafficking studies using rhodamine labeled siRNA revealed that polyplexes made from smaller MW chitosans exhibited faster cellular uptake kinetics than their higher MW counterpart. Transmission electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering studies (SAXS) revealed that the 44 kDa derived polyplexes exhibited regular spherical structure, whereas the 143 kDa chitosan polyplex was rather irregularly shaped. With regards to adverse effects these low N:P chitosan/siRNA formulations represent an interesting alternative to so far reported chitosan polyplexes that used vast N:P excess to achieve similar bioactivity.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
PMID: 21884740 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]